Nashville Fire Department (NFD) formed their hazardous materials team and started training in 1978 under the direction of Dr. Woods, Dr. Kramer and Captain Harry White (Retired NFD Deputy Fire Chief). This was the FIRST HAZMAT course developed of its kind and now taught throughout the world with the same general tools and techniques developed by the NFD. Nashville was operational in April of 1979 as a regional response team. Nashville, Jacksonville (Fl.), and Houston (Tx.) all formed their teams around the same time becoming the first in the country. Hazardous materials technicians in the Nashville Fire Department are trained at the minimum of an 80 hour HMTO course. Team members are required to have 40 hours of annual in service/refresher training. Several team members have attended outside training at the Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP) in Anniston, Alabama, Bomb and Explosives Training in New Mexico, ACBIRC training at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah and Radiological Training in Nevada. NFD trains regularly with Tennessee Emergency Management Agency and the 45th Civil Support Team which provide Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) training and support for the hazmat team.